INGREDIENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Allspice Ground cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg, to taste
1 teaspoon baking powder ½ teaspoon cream of tartar + ¼ teaspoon baking soda
1 ounce unsweetened baking chocolate 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa + 1 tablespoon butter or margarine
½ cup semisweet chocolate chips ¼ cup cocoa powder
1 tablespoon cornstarch, for thickening 1 tablespoon potato or arrowroot starch or2 tablespoon AP flour or tapioca starch

or

2 eggs

 

1 egg, for baking ½ mashed banana or1/3 cup applesauce

 

1 cup AP flour ¾ cup whole wheat flour or1 cup + 2 tablespoons cake flour

 

1 cup brown or white rice flour 1 cup cake flouror1 cup minus 1 tablespoon AP flour

 

1 cup self-rising flour 1 cup AP flour + ¼ teaspoon baking powder
1 tablespoon gelatin 2 teaspoons agar-agar
1 tablespoon oil 1 ¼ tablespoons butter
1 cup semolina 1 cup cream of wheat, masa harina or cornmeal
1 cup white sugar 2/3 cup agave syrup or honey
1 cup brown sugar 1 cup white sugar or1 cup white sugar + 2 tablespoons molasses (for stronger taste)
1 cup light corn syrup 1 ¼ cups sugar + 1/3 cup water, boiled down to 1 cup
½ cup peanut butter ½ cup tahini or almond butter
1 teaspoon orange blossom water 1 teaspoon rose wateror ½ teaspoon rose extract
1 vanilla bean 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

 

Cooking

1 garlic clove ¼ teaspoon garlic powder or garlic juice or½ teaspoon chopped garlic
1 teaspoon harissa 1 teaspoon Sriracha or Tabasco sauce
¼ cup Italian seasoning 1 tablespoon oregano + 1 tablespoon thyme + 1 tablespoon basil + 1 tablespoon parsley
1 tablespoon minced onion 1 teaspoon onion powder
1 preserved lemon 1 tablespoon lemon juice + 1 teaspoon lemon zest + ¼ teaspoon salt
Ras el hanout Cinnamon, cloves, ginger, turmeric, nutmeg, cayenne, pepper, cardamom and mace, to taste
1/8 teaspoon saffron, for color 1/4 teaspoon turmeric or annatto powder
½ teaspoon smen 1 tablespoon clarified butter or ghee + 1/8 teaspoon salt + 1/8 teaspoon crushed dried oregano
1 tablespoon sumac 1 teaspoon lemon zest + paprika for color

 

Dairy

1 cup buttermilk 1 cup milk + 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar. Let stand 5 minutes before using.
1 cup crème fraîche ½ cup sour cream + ½ cup heavy cream
1 cup evaporated milk 1 cup half and half or light cream
1 cup half and half ½ cup heavy cream + half a cup milk
1 cup yogurt, for baking 1 cup buttermilk, sour cream, blended cottage cheese, or applesauce